Ideology on agriculture in olden times
In ancient times, 85% of people lived in villages. The majority of this population belonged to the farmer. The terms ryot and mujriyan were used in Persian sources for the peasant. In some sources, he has also been called the Assamese. His main tasks were plowing the land, sowing seeds and harvesting when it was harvested. There were two types of farmers living in India from the 16th to 17th centuries. Myself – tenant and deceased – tenant. The tenants themselves were farmers who, with the help of their families, farmed land in their village. Pahi – were tenant farmers whose fields and habitat were in another village. It is always the endeavor of the old kings that the development of agriculture should be greater so that the old kings can earn maximum profit and increase their income, so they gave many facilities to the farmers for the expansion of agriculture.
Means of irrigation: –
In the olden days, the monsoon was considered the backbone of Indian agriculture. When the rains were good, the crops also became good. Many times the monsoon was deceived and the crops were ruined. Farmers adopted artificial means of irrigation to deal with this situation. Nahres and wells were built for irrigation in North India and ponds were made for irrigation in South India.
The glut of crops: –
In the olden days, the farmers were aware of which crop is grown in which land and in which season. At that time, Kharif and rabi crops were prepared in most places in India. In some places where adequate means of irrigation were available, three crops were also taken in a year. The major crops produced in India were wheat, rice, cotton, barley, millet, and sugarcane.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, there were big landowners in the villages. They were very influential. They used to collect land revenue from the government. These landlords used to own large lands. They used to hire many laborers to cultivate these lands. They used to persecute those workers. Zamindars also used to take labor from their laborers.
Rural Mandia: –
There were many rural mandis in India in the 16th to 17th centuries. Farmers used to come to these mandis to sell their crops. Bullock carts, camels, and mules were the main means to carry the crop of the farmer from one place to another. In almost all the villages, farmers were self-reliant for their needs, but there were some items that had to be purchased from the mandis. In the mandis, farmers also had to be victims of exploitation of government officials.
Role of women: –
In olden times, women played an important role in an agricultural society. She worked shoulder to shoulder with men in the fields. The men plowed the fields and plowed. Women used to do sowing, weeding, harvesting, and extracting grains from the ripe crop. When the development of small rural units and the individual farming of the farmer started, then at that time the house became the foundation of family resources. The demand for the forgiveness of women increased for the production of the commodity which was commercialized. In fact, farmers and artisans used to carry burdens, break stones, work in homes, and work in bazaars when needed.